The world’s most impactful scientific researchers


Clarivate Analytics names the world’s most impactful scientific researchers with the release of the 2017 Highly Cited Researchers List

The rise of China in publication output and influence demonstrates a dramatic development


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Clarivate Analytics

Nov 15, 2017, 00:01 ET


PHILADELPHIA, Nov. 15, 2017 /PRNewswire/ — Clarivate Analytics, the global leader in providing trusted insights and analytics to enable researchers to accelerate discovery, today released its publication of its annual Highly Cited Researchers list.  The citation analysis identifies the most frequently cited researchers as determined by the extent to which their papers have supported, influenced, inspired and challenged other researchers around the globe. It identifies authors who have consistently won peer approval from international researchers in the form of high citation counts.

For more than two decades the Web of Science has served as the basis for regular listings of researchers whose work is cited at a level markedly higher than average for their fields. Clarivate Analytics now presents the latest updates to these listings: the extensive roster of 2017’s Highly Cited Researchers, based on work published and cited over the last decade.

Key findings show:

  • More than 3,300 Highly Cited Researchers in 21 fields of the sciences and social sciences. 130,000 papers aligned to 900 institutions were selected this year.
  • The USA fields the highest number of authors, at 1,661, a 13% increase on the 2016 listing. The UK ranks second with almost 350 entries.
  • China is gaining fast, in third place, with the highest increase of any nation, showing a 34% jump to 237 authors.
  • Several authors -147 in fact – are credited for Highly Cited Papers in more than one field of research.  Twenty authors appear in three fields.
  • Finland (25%) & Singapore (21%), whilst their respective overall totals of authors listed are <30, also posted notable percentage increases since 2016.
  • In terms of notable institutions on the list:
  1. Harvard University, USA tops the institutional table with 109 entries, followed by,
  2. Stanford University, USA  has 64
  3. Germany’s Max Planck Society, lists 47 authors
  4. The Chinese Academy of Science boasts 45 entries

The two-part study also spotlights a ranking of Hot Papers that quickly accumulate a high number of citations soon after publication. The list of emerging research trends features 21 researchers who, since 2014, have each published at least 14 Hot Papers, according to citations tallied as of December 2016.

Michael Grätzel of the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Switzerland and Henry J. Snaith of Oxford University, UK share the top spot with 29 Hot Papers for multiple fields of research.

“The rise of China in publication output and world share in internationally influential journals indexed in the Web of Science has been a dramatic development during the last 20 years,” notes David Pendlebury, Senior Citations Analyst at Clarivate Analytics. “What we are now seeing is China’s increasing presence among most cited authors and papers, especially in the physical sciences. This year, the number of Chinese scientists in the Highly Cited Researchers list is 237, 34% more than last year. That makes the nation third in number of highly cited researchers behind the USA and UK. China’s output of materials science papers is now more than twice that of the United States, and it is capturing a greater and greater share of top cited papers in the field. In some fields China has not only caught up, but it is now powering ahead.”

The methodology that determines the who’s who of researchers draws on the data and analysis performed by bibliometric experts from Clarivate Analytics.  It uses Essential Science Indicators, a unique compilation of science performance metrics and trend data based on scholarly paper publication counts and citation data from the Web of Science, the premier web-based environment of scientific and scholarly research literature totaling over 33,000 journals.

The 2017 Highly Cited Researchers list can be seen in its entirety at https://clarivate.com/hcr/.

Read the 2017 Highly Cited Researchers report, featuring the Hottest Papers and the researchers behind them visit: http://bit.ly/2hs7nzp.

Clarivate Analytics
Clarivate™ Analytics is the global leader in providing trusted insights and analytics to accelerate the pace of innovation. Building on a heritage going back more than a century and a half, we have built some of the most trusted brands across the innovation lifecycle, including the Web of Science™, Cortellis™, Derwent™, CompuMark™, MarkMonitor® and Techstreet™. Today, Clarivate Analytics is a new and independent company on a bold entrepreneurial mission, to help our clients radically reduce the time from new ideas to life-changing innovations. For more information, please visit clarivate.com.

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Jennifer Figueroa
Clarivate Analytics  – USA
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Modern Warm Period Not Unprecedented, Chinese Academy Of Sciences Study Finds


  • Date: 23/08/17
  • Chinese Academy Of Sciences

    Modern Warm Period Not Unprecedented, Chinese Academy Of Sciences Study Finds

    • Date: 23/08/17
    • Chinese Academy Of Sciences

    “We found four warm epochs,” says Prof. Quansheng Ge. Data show records for the periods AD 981–1100 and AD 1201–70 are comparable to the present warm period.

     

    2,000-year temperature reconstruction in China. Credit: Yang Liu & Jingyun Zheng

    A great deal of evidence relating to ancient climate variation is preserved in proxy data such as tree rings, lake sediments, ice cores, stalagmites, corals and historical documents, and these sources carry great significance in evaluating the 20th century warming in the context of the last two millennia.

    Prof. GE Quansheng and his group from the Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, collected a large number of proxies and reconstructed a 2000-year temperature series in China with a 10-year resolution, enabling them to quantitatively reveal the characteristics of temperature change in China over a common era.

    “We found four warm epochs, which were AD 1 to AD 200, AD 550 to AD 760, AD 950 to AD 1300, and the 20th century. Cold periods occurred between AD 210 and AD 350, AD 420 and AD 530, AD 780 and AD 940, and AD 1320 and AD 1900. The temperature amplitude between the warmest and coldest decades was 1.3°C,” said Prof. GE.

    The team found that the most rapid warming in China occurred over AD 1870–2000, at a rate of 0.56 ± 0.42°C (100 yr)−1; however, temperatures recorded in the 20th century may not be unprecedented in the last 2000 years, as reconstruction showed records for the period from 981 to 1100, and again from 1201 to 1270, were comparable to those of the present warm period, but with an uncertainty of ±0.28°C to ±0.42°C at the 95% confidence interval. Since 1000 CE—the period covering the Medieval Climate Anomaly, Little Ice Age, and the present warm period—temperature variations over China have typically been in phase with those of the Northern Hemisphere as a whole.

    They also detected some interactions between temperature variation and precipitation change. The ensemble means of dryness/wetness spatial patterns in eastern China across all centennial warm periods illustrate a tripole pattern: dry south of 25°N; wet from 25°–30°N; and dry to the north of 30°N. For all cold periods, the ensemble mean drought/flood spatial patterns showed an east to west distribution, with flooding east of 115°E and drought dominant west of 115°E, with the exception of flooding between approximately110°E and 105°E.

    The general characteristics of the impacts of climatic change historically were negative in the cold periods and positive in the warm periods. For example, 25 of the 31 most prosperous periods in imperial China during the past 2000 years occurred during periods of warmth or warming. A cooling trend at the centennial scale and social economic decline run hand-in-hand. The rapid development supported by better resources and a better environment in warm periods could lead to an increase in social vulnerability when the climate turns once more to being relatively colder.

    “Throughout China’s history,” Prof. GE added, “both rulers and the ruled have adopted strategies and policies to cope with climate change, as permitted by the prevailing geography and circumstances of the time.”

    The study is published in Advances in Atmospheric Sciences.

    More information: Quansheng Ge et al, Characteristics of temperature change in China over the last 2000 years and spatial patterns of dryness/wetness during cold and warm periods, Advances in Atmospheric Sciences (2017). DOI: 10.1007/s00376-017-6238-8

    Chinese Academy of Sciences, 8 August 2017

     

    Characteristics of temperature change in China over the last 2000 years and spatial patterns of dryness/wetness during cold and warm period

    Advances in Atmospheric SciencesVolume 34, Issue 8pp 941–951

    Quansheng Ge et al., Chinese Academy of Sciences

    Abstract

    This paper presents new high-resolution proxies and paleoclimatic reconstructions for studying climate changes in China for the past 2000 years. Multi-proxy synthesized reconstructions show that temperature variation in China has exhibited significant 50–70-yr, 100–120-yr, and 200–250-yr cycles. Results also show that the amplitudes of decadal and centennial temperature variation were 1.3°C and 0.7°C, respectively, with the latter significantly correlated with long-term changes in solar radiation, especially cold periods, which correspond approximately to sunspot minima. The most rapid warming in China occurred over AD 1870–2000, at a rate of 0.56° ± 0.42°C (100 yr)−1; however, temperatures recorded in the 20th century may not be unprecedented for the last 2000 years, as data show records for the periods AD 981–1100 and AD 1201–70 are comparable to the present. The ensemble means of dryness/wetness spatial patterns in eastern China across all centennial warm periods illustrate a tripole pattern: dry south of 25°N, wet from 25°–30°N, and dry to the north of 30°N. However, for all centennial cold periods, this spatial pattern also exhibits a meridional distribution. The increase in precipitation over the monsoonal regions of China associated with the 20th century warming can primarily be attributed to a mega El Ni˜no–Southern Oscillation and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. In addition, a significant association between increasing numbers of locusts and dry/cold conditions is found in eastern China. Plague intensity also generally increases in concert with wetness in northern China, while more precipitation is likely to have a negative effect in southern China.

    4. Conclusion

    In this paper we report on a number of high-resolution proxies, paleoclimatic reconstructions, and new results through CCCP2k studies attained over the last five years. The following points can be concluded from this work:

    (1) Multi-proxy synthesized reconstructions for China show significant cycles in temperature variation over the last 2000 years, including 50–70-yr, 100–120-yr, and 200–250-yr cycles. At the same time, the amplitudes for decadal and centennial variation in temperature are 1.3◦C and 0.7◦C, respectively, and centennial variation is significantly correlated with long-term changes in solar radiation—especially cold periods, which correspond approximately to sunspot minima, as well as the frequency of large volcanic eruptions. Results further show that the linear warming trend across the whole of China was 0.56◦ ±0.42◦C (100 yr)−1 for the period between AD 1870 and AD 2000. This was very likely the most rapid in the last 2000 years, although a similar warming rate also occurred in intervals between cold and warm periods before the 20th century. The warmth of the 20th century may not be unprecedented over the last 2000 years; the temperature of two peaks at AD 1080 and AD 1250 during the MCA are comparable.

    (2) Spatial patterns in the dry–wet index ensemble mean for eastern China (i.e., the mainland region approximately east of 105◦E and south of 40◦N) across all centennial warm periods correspond to a tripole pattern of dry conditions south of 25◦N, wet conditions between 25◦N and 30◦N, and dry conditions north of 30◦N. In contrast, ensemble mean spatial patterns exhibit an east-to-west distribution for centennial cold periods, with wet conditions dominant east of 115◦E and dry conditions prevalent west of 115◦E, albeit with a wetness exception around 110◦E. An increase in precipitation in the monsoonal regions of China corresponding with 20th century warming can primarily be attributed to a mega-ENSO (one significant cause of interannual-to-interdecadal variations in global SST), as well as the AMO.

    (3) Results show a significant association between the occurrences of locusts, human plagues, and long-term climate variation in eastern China, with more locusts recorded in dry and cold conditions. However, plague intensity responses to changes in wet and dry conditions are different in northern and southern China; plague intensity has generally increased with wetness in northern China, while high precipitation has historically had a negative effect in the south. These findings reported in this paper may improve our understanding of whether or not the warming observed in the 20th century can be considered exceptional within the past regional context. We have also explored changes in spatial patterns of dryness and wetness, as well as the temporal and spatial occurrences of locusts and plagues in China in response to climate warming, and our results provide insights for successful adaptation in the future. The results presented here will also be useful for further studies regarding the sensitivity of regional climate warming to CO2 concentrations, as well as climate dynamics, at decadal to centennial scales.

    Full paper

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Citrus enters our Mediterranean lives


January 2018

Vol. VI, No. 1

When Life Gives You Lemons: Tracking the Earliest Citrus in the Mediterranean

By Dafna Langgut

Jaffa orange poster

 

One of the most famous Levantine exports of the 20th century was the Jaffa orange, and we have long associated the region with citrus. Today citrus orchards are a major component of the Mediterranean landscape and among the region’s most important cultivated fruits. But while citrus is now iconic, it may come as a surprise that it is not native to the Mediterranean Basin; these species originated thousands of miles away, in Southeast Asia. So how did the first citrus arrive in the Mediterranean, and why?

Citrus was first cultivated by humans at least four thousand years ago in Southeast Asia, and all cultivated species derive from a handful of wild ancestors. Several years ago I found the earliest archaeobotanical evidence of citrus within the Mediterranean in a royal Persian garden near Jerusalem dating to the fifth and fourth centuries BCE. In the course of research I traced the spread and diversification of citrus through a variety of historical information, including ancient texts, art, and artifacts such as wall paintings and coins, and by gathering all the available archaeobotanical remains: fossil pollen grains, charcoal, seeds, and other fruit remains.

Packing oranges in Rehovoth by mixed crowds. Arabs and Jews (Library of Congress)

 

These botanical remains were evaluated for their reliability (in terms of identification, archaeological context and dating), and other possible interpretations. The data enabled me to understand the spread of citrus from Southeast Asia into the Mediterranean. The citron (citrus medica, better known in the Jewish tradition as the etrog) was the first citrus fruit to reach the Mediterranean, via Persia. The citron has a thick rind and a small, dry pulp, but it was the first to arrive in the west, and for this reason the whole group of fruits (citrus) is named after one of its less economically important members.  It was introduced to the Eastern Mediterranean around the 5-4th century BCE and then traveled quickly west. The citron and the lemon (citrus limon, a hybrid of the citron and the bitter orange, which was introduced to the west at least four centuries later) were originally considered elite products. This means that for more than a millennium, citron and lemon were the only citrus fruits known in the Mediterranean Basin.

The citron was brought to ancient Israel to display the power of the Persian ruler and it slowly penetrated to the Jewish religious and symbolic worlds (the etrog is one of the key species used during the Sukkot holiday and is frequently depicted on coins and mosaics) and then to the central and western Mediterranean. Remains of this species were also found in gardens owned by affluent members of the western Roman world, for example in the area of Vesuvius and around Rome, dated to the 3rd-2nd century BEC. It appears that the citron was considered a valuable commodity due to its healing qualities, symbolic use, pleasant odor and its rarity, such that only the rich could have afforded it. Its spread therefore was helped more by its representation of high social status, its significance in religion, and unique features more than by its culinary qualities (which are somewhat limited).

 

Map showing the plausible area of origin and center of domestication of C. medica, C. reticulata, and C. maxima. From Dafna Langgut, “The Citrus Route Revealed: From Southeast Asia into the Mediterranean,” Horticultural Science 52 (2017): 814–822.

Citron limon or etrog. (Wikimedia Commons)

 Citron. (Wikimedia Commons)

 

Citron fruits alongside a palm branch on a coin of the fourth year of the Great Revolt (69–70 AD). (B) Citron appears on a coin from the time of Simon bar Kokhba’s revolt (132– 136 AD).

Two citron fruits alongside a menorah in a magnificent mosaic from the sixth century AD Maon Synagogue (Negev Desert, Israel). Photograph by Clara Amit, courtesy of the Israel Antiquities Authority.

 

In contrast, sour orange, lime, and pummelo were introduced to the west much later beginning in the 10th century CE, by the Muslims, probably via Sicily and the Iberian Peninsula. It is clear that Muslims played a crucial role in the dispersal of cultivated citrus in Northern Africa and Southern Europe. This is also evident from the common names of many of the citrus types that are derived from Arabic. The dispersal of these fruits was possible because the Islamic world controlled extensive territory and commercial routes reaching from India to the Mediterranean.

Sour orange (Citrus page)
Lime (Citrus Pages)

 

The introduction of the sweet orange is dated even later, to the 15th century CE. Its arrival is probably linked with the trade route established by the Genoese and then in the 16 century CE by the Portuguese. The mandarin, one of the four core citrus species, was only introduced to the Mediterranean region at the beginning of the 19th century. Mediterranean cuisines that feature citrus are thus relatively recent developments, and their appearance in European (and American diets) even later. Today, the Mediterranean produces at least 20% of the world’s citrus.

Mandarin orange (Wikimedia Commons)

Pummelo (Wikimedia Commons)

 

The spread of these species, and their movement from elite to everyday status, shows how different cultures adapt unusual plants as status symbols of wealth and power, but then spread to all levels of society, influencing economics, diets and nutrition in the process.

Dr. Dafna Langgut is Head of the Laboratory of Archaeobotany and Ancient Environments at the Institute of Archaeology at Tel Aviv Universit

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Animal Brothels Open in Germany as Migrant Population Hits 22 Percent


Animal Brothels Open in Germany as Migrant Population Hits 22 Percent

Posted in Uncategorized | 1 Comment

Do you think your own nation is the only one which make hasty human rights violations…….


The Human Rights Commission of Sri Lanka (HRCSL) has ruled that the fundamental rights of the girl who was accused of being pregnant and was ordered to be removed from school by the class teacher, school disciplinary board, teaching instructor and former principal of Sri Revatha Vidyalaya in Madatugama had been violated.

The HRCSL had directed the Director Education of the North Central Province to hold an inquiry against those involved in making this hasty decision to send the girl in question home and to send the report on its findings to the commission.

The HRCSL initiated the investigation after reading reports in the media of a school girl being asked to leave the school by the school authorities who thought that she was pregnant when she actually was vomiting as she had not eaten breakfast that morning. The recent decision carried the signatures of the Chairperson of the Commission Dr. Deepika Udugama and its Commissioner, Presidents Council Saliya Peiris.

The Commission had observed that the disciplinary committee of the school in question had taken an arbitrary decision within a day to remove the girl from school without holding a disciplinary inquiry according to the circular issued by the Ministry of Education. (Tharindu Jayawardena)

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One very challenging view of Jesus and His return


  1. Image may contain: 2 people, people standing, crowd and outdoor

    Ed Wade

    · October 9 ·

    macOS

    ·

    How does this grab you in light of the Great Historical Confrontation prophecy of Saint Pope JP ll?

    The battle lines are being drawn between:

    The Church versus the anti-church
    The Gospel versus the anti-gospel
    The Christ versus the anti-christ

    And don’t kid yourself and brush thIs off YOU AND YOUR LOVE ONES ARE THE TARGETS. All of humanity is the target and you can take that statement to the bank.

    Here is the www.undojesus.org website

    Why not share this with everybody and warn them but before you do that read the chapters 2 AND 3 OF THE BOOK OF EZEKIEL

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Latest Church of England parish attendance figures. Two up, sort of, and all the rest down. ( down becomes very great.)


Wednesday, October 18, 2017

Church of England Attendance Change by Diocese, 2011-16

The latest Church of England attendance figures are out, and full marks to the CofE for producing them in Excel format as well as the usual pdfs. So much easier to play about with.

The good news, however, ends there.

You can always tell if it’s been an iffy year, because the press release accompanying the stats is on something other than whats happening in a normal church on a normal Sunday. This year it’s the social media profile.

I’ve been blogging for years on what’s happening in the Dioceses, and whether we are, at last turning the corner. Sad to report that the answer is no: at least, not based on the official stats. If anything, it’s getting worse

In the last 5 years, only two dioceses have seen adult Sunday attendance grow – London continues to be the engine room of the CofE, but many of the Dioceses that were doing well last time round have seen a sharp drop in numbers. For numbers, read people (see Acts in the New Testament, does it all the time). The rate of decline across the CofE has increased, and to have 12 dioceses recording losses in double figures compares with 5 for 2009-14.

Maybe the next generation will save us? Maybe not. Again, London is growing, again, nobody else is, and the figures towards the bottom of the table are catastrophic.

Perhaps the hope lies in non-Sunday worship? After all, millions of people now work on a Sunday, and the competition with leisure activities etc. is intense. Adult attendance Mon-Sat has risen from 112,000 to 122,000, so it is both growing, and a higher proportion of overall CofE attendance. However childrens midweek attendance has dropped like a stone – I’m hoping that’s to do with a different recording system, but fear that it might not be.

There is wider cultural change too, away from Christendom and the culture that supported an established church. Baptisms, weddings and funerals taken by the CofE have dropped by 15, 21 and 28% respectively in the last 10 years. This in turn reduces the pool of community contacts and means local churches have to work harder to engage with the community, and move beyond dependence on the ‘occasional offices’ as a way of connecting with people.

One glimmer of hope in the figures is on p10 of the full report. Churches were asked to report on ‘joiners’ and ‘leavers’ during the year, and 80,000 people were reported as joining CofE churches. 32% of the adults and 58% of the children had never been church members before. That’s encouraging, or does it just mean that we notice more when people join than when they leave?

There is probably a lot more to say in the detail, but I hope these stats are actually used for mission – I blogged on a previous occasion how the only people who paid any attention to membership figures were the finance department. A vicar who’s seen their attendance drop by 15% in a year is more likely to get a call questioning whether they’ve under-reported to save on parish share (contributions to the Diocese) than whether they are ok and if they need any support.

Many Dioceses now have a mission strategy, including even Bath and Wells (I know, it’s hard to believe at times), and it looks like we need it more than ever. But it shouldn’t be a preservation strategy, even though God has probably used the ghastly stats above to kick the recalcitrant CofE out of its sniffiness about evangelism. We now need to get over our complacency about prayer.

Update: final thoughts – the 4,000 smallest churches have an average weekly attendance of 12, i.e. small enough to fit into a decent size front room. On average, CofE churches have a worshipping community of 75, with 54 of those present on any normal Sunday.  This means that on a normal Sunday 1/3 of the congregation is absent. How does a church work and thrive and grow in relationships with this dynamic?

Also, each vicar costs roughly twice the average salary (due to housing, training, pension costs), so 40 people giving the ‘Anglican tithe’ of 5% to their church could support one. Bump that up to 50 for other central costs (our Diocese has over 50 support staff, sorting out things like training, finance, safeguarding, schools). Then you’ve got to find money to run the church – resources, building costs, etc. If some of those church members are fairly new, it’s not long before you get to the point that the average local church only works if it’s overseen by a part-time vicar. Either that or it loses the building (the other major cost centre). We have roughly 7,000 vicars to 16,000 churches, so it has to be that way anyway. Despite no longer being able to sustain the ‘1 parish 1 vicar’ model, CofE structures and expectations are still largely based on it. We’re like a fat man after a successful diet still trying to wear the same clothes. Buildings, parish boundaries, the expectation (indeed the law of the land) of weekly communion, committee structures, recognition of lay ministry (Lay Readers are the main accredited role alongside clergy, following 2 years theological training, Deacons get lip service and little more) etc.remain largely untouched from 20, 50, 100 years ago. And every few years, your parish gets blessed with an enforced vacancy, just to stifle any growth you might have managed to muster.

Either the system will collapse under its own wait (scroll up – maybe we’re witnessing that already), or we need a decisive shift away from ancient buildings, paid clergy, or an over-clericalised theology and practice of church that stifles lay leadership. Or there’ll be a miracle. I’d argue we need both.

update: a few more links at Thinking Anglicans.

PS if you’re sharing this on Facebook, please could you tag me in, would be good to see the debate on FB as well as on the blogs.

update 2: At over 7000 views this is now the third-most read post on this blog (out of nearly 2600 posts). That is already more than the average Adult attendance in 2 Dioceses (Sodor and Man and, ironically, Hereford), and also exceeds the number of men confirmed in the CofE last year (6581). As a sign of the times, Facebook is the source for nearly 2/3 of the visits here, comfortably outstripping Twitter and other blogs.

Update 3 Jeremy Marshall has some very perceptive analysis on his blog, worth a read if you are more interested in how we respond to all this.

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